Tag

persuasion Archives - SUE Behavioural Design Academy

What is design thinking?

By | Behavioural Science

Excerpt: In this post, we will explain what design thinking is all about. Originating from the innovation arena, it has gained popularity in other business domains, driven by the success of design thinking of radically focusing on the needs of the user — the how and why behind design thinking is explained in this article.

 

Design thinking explained

Everybody seems to be design thinking nowadays or has at least have heard of the term. But what is design thinking? Why has it gained so much popularity? Is it something that can help you and your business become more successful? In this article, we will give a short design thinking masterclass, so you’ll know what everybody is talking about and you can see for yourself if you want to start implementing design thinking in your own company. We’ll explain how and lead you to some of the best resources on the internet. To make your life a bit easier, we’ve divided the article into several subsections, which you can jump to by clicking on the following links:

A new approach to innovation and problem solving
Design thinking implementing the process
The steps in the design thinking process
Design thinking tools and videos
Recap

A new approach to innovation and problem solving

Design thinking comes from the field of innovation and is a new approach, or process if you like, to solve problems taking the user as a focus point. The method has been described as far back as 1969 by Nobel laureate Herbert Simon, but it really made a lift when d.school of Stanford University came up with a five-step approach to design thinking, which was given a boost by Tim Brown of IDEO, and explained in his bestselling book ‘Change by Design‘. In this article, we’ll describe their approach, as it is most commonly used nowadays, and very practical to implement yourself.

design thinking

Design thinking revolves around a deep interest in developing a deep human understanding of the people for whom we’re designing products or services. It helps you question and enables you to resist to act upon (often wrong) assumptions. Design thinking is extremely useful in tackling problems that are ill-defined or complex, by re-framing the question in human-centric ways. Design thinking is so successful because it focuses on the needs of the user — understanding culture and context through observation and qualitative research (storytelling) diagnosing the right problem.

Okay, that sounds nice and all. But why do we need this? To put things short, we all think in patterns. We all have ways we are used to doing things — our habits, what we get taught in school, by our parents, and in the business place. Which is fine, as it helps us deal with everyday situations, we can rely on these patterns of thinking.

We need this automatic behaviour to survive. If we had to make every decision consciously, or had to think about every behaviour rationally, or had to learn to do everything from scratch over and over again our brains would crash as we explained in our article about system 1 and 2 thinking of Kahneman. In short, we rely on doing every day – private and business – processes for the most part unconsciously — for example, when we get up in the morning, eat, brush our teeth, and get dressed. We don’t think about it; we do it how we are used to doing it.

There’s one downside to this patterned thinking. It makes it very difficult for us humans to challenge our assumptions of everyday knowledge. Especially when you’re expected to be a paid expert, it can be tough to start questioning your own experience (also known as the expert fallacy or false authority). So, when we run into a problem that we haven’t faced before, or that requires a new innovative solution, we often get stuck or come up with old answers that aren’t always the best.

Often this difference between repetitive patterned thinking and innovative thinking (also commonly referred to as ‘out-of-the-box’ thinking’) is illustrated by the truck example. Have you heard of it? If not, let us tell you this story.

Some years ago, an incident occurred where a truck driver made a wrong judgment call and tried to pass under a low bridge that turned out to be too low for his truck. His truck got so firmly lodged under the bridge, that the driver couldn’t manoeuvre the truck through it anymore, but also couldn’t reverse his vehicle which not only caused a problem for the truck, but also for the traffic that got stuck behind him. The story goes that the fire department, other truck drivers, road help, and other experts came over to negotiate how to tackle this problem.

Everyone was debating whether to dismantle parts of the truck or break down parts of the bridge. Each spoke of a solution which fitted within his or her respective level of expertise. And this went on for some time.

The story goes, a boy walked by, took a look a the truck and then said, “Why not just let the air out of the tires?” which took all specialists and experts by surprise, who were debating for hours trying to solve the problem.

 

design thinking truck

When the solution was tested, the truck was able to drive through quickly. The story symbolises the struggles we face where frequently the most obvious answers are the ones hardest to come by because of the thinking patterns we all have within. And it summarised what design thinking helps you realise: design thinking helps you to change the way you tackle problems. It encourages you to explore new alternatives. Creating options that didn’t exist before.

 

Design thinking implementing the process

In this next part, we want to give you a concise design thinking masterclass. It will explain the principles of user-centred design. The first advantage and characteristic of design thinking are that it encourages us to take an integrative approach to develop new strategies or ideas. Whereas in a lot of ideation processes the research department passes on insights to strategic planners who in their turn pass their insights on to the creatives, and then the ideas are handed over to production to be made, design thinking sees insight, ideation, and implementation as three overlapping ‘cycles’. You will also come across to these spaces being called ‘understand’, ‘concept’ and ‘develop’.

Design thinkers don’t follow these three cycles in a strictly linear way. You could pass through every cycle more than once. Could be you have an idea, but after prototyping your idea with real users, you come to learn they don’t understand it or didn’t do what you hoped them to do. Then you have to adapt your ideas. So, you go back to the drawing board.

We always like to say that strategy is nothing more than a hypothesis that you test, build, and learn. We are firm believers the best strategy is developed through ideation and prototyping. Sometimes the feedback you get in prototyping gives you such an extra insight into the consumer decision-making process that you have to make a perception switch and come to a new understanding that will reshape your strategy. We like to call this process of including and being open to human psychology the concept of strategy development as opposed to the more inside-out concept of strategic planning.

design thinking

Source: IDEO

The task of a design thinker is to bring all phases together as one harmonious solution. The cool thing – we think – is when you have the design thinkers mindset you break through silos. Whereas the researchers, the creatives, and the strategic thinkers often work in different departments, now you get to go through all cycles yourself with a multidisciplinary team. Which not only makes your work more interesting but especially makes sure a lot of valuable insights aren’t lost in the process of handing things over to the next department. Design thinking is an integrative approach that adds value and fun. And which is a springboard for innovative, smart thinking that puts humans first.

 

The steps in design thinking

Let’s dive a bit deeper into the stages of the design thinking process. There are five steps in total:

  • Empathy
    The first step of the design thinking process is called empathy. You try to understand human psychology and try to find out why people make decisions. The goal is to gain an empathic understanding of the problem you are trying to solve. You could do this in several ways. One of the most reliable methods is observation. Watching what people do. Why this is a proven method is because a lot of what people do is sub-conscious. If you’d ask them, they wouldn’t be able you to give you a (correct) answer. But you could also consult experts, extreme users, or do qualitative research to gain a deeper personal understanding of people’s emotions, needs, desires and fears. Empathy is crucial to a human-centred design process as it allows o set aside your assumptions about the world or your target group.  It is all about understanding behavioural psychology and identifying behavioural patterns.
  • Define
    In this stage, you put together the information you gathered during the empathy stage. This is where you will analyse your observations and refine and focus the problem you are trying to solve based on what you found while empathizing with your user. We often tend to define the problem inside-out. For example: “We need to gain 5% more market share in gym subscriptions by the end of next year”. But the whole point of design thinking is that you start thinking outside-in. So, your problem definition should also be human-centred. For example: “We need to help people to build the healthy habit of coming to the gym so fewer people will quit”.
  • Ideate
    This is the stage where you try to come up with as many as possible solutions to your problem. Several techniques have proven to be very useful like brainwriting or the magic eight. It is essential to get as many ideas or problem solutions as possible at the beginning of the ideation phase. Behavioural research done to research the effectiveness of teams have shown that individuals are best at coming up with as many diverse ideas as possible, whereas a group is best at picking the most promising ideas. A technique used for this is called dotmocracy. If you’re interested in unlocking more creative power from a group, you could read our post ‘3 techniques that will supercharge your team’s creativity“.
  • Prototype
    Prototyping is all about learning. Your job is now the make some inexpensive, scaled down versions of your idea that can be shared and tested with the actual users. There are several ways to prototype. You can write value propositions on a page; you can make a first landing page, you can create a storyboard or sketches. This is an experimental phase, so it’s not about making the perfect prototype. It’s about making a prototype that will help you gather valuable user feedback.
  • Test
    We go about the testing phase by doing qualitative interviews with our end users or potential target group we are trying to influence. Very important to remember to tell and not sell. You’re not at the stage of convincing someone yet; you are here to learn where your product, service, idea, etc. needs improvement. Which parts are unclear? What turns out to be the killer feature? All the test insights will be used to do an ideation round again to optimise the idea based on real user feedback.

 

design thinkingSource: IDEO

Design thinking tools and videos

There are a lot of tools and techniques to use to make every step of the design thinking process worthwhile. The masters of design thinking are the people of IDEO, and they did us all a massive favour by developing a design thinking toolkit that they’ve put online for all of us to use. Just take a look in there, and see which tools you like.

One of the founders of IDEO, David Kelley, has given a 6o minute interview explaining his view on design thinking. You can watch it here:

IDEO has also made a series of videos explaining the mindsets design thinkers should have.

1. Iterate, iterate, iterate featuring Gaby Brink.

 

2. Empathy

3. Creative Confidence featuring David Kelley

4. Embrace ambiguity featuring Patrice Martin.

 

5. Learn from failure featuring Tim Brown.

http://www.designkit.org/mindsets/1

 

6. Optimism featuring John Bielenburg.

http://www.designkit.org/mindsets/6

 

Recap

Design thinking is a process to come up with truly innovative ideas that are radically human-centred. The five-step approach of empathy, define, ideate, prototype and test help you to find solutions to problems with an outside-in view. Tapping into the consciousness and sub-conscious of your potential users. And helping you to validate your ideas before the money runs out.

Would you like to learn more?

Cialdini Influence in practice

By | Behavioural Science

Excerpt: In this post, we want to give some examples of how to use Cialdini’s six principles of persuasion in practice. Well, we won’t explain all the principles ourselves, but Cialdini will do so too. Some of the persuasion principles come with a video in which Dr. Cialdini explains the principle himself. If you want a more extensive explanation the work of Cialdini on the psychology of influence, please make sure to read this post that will give you a recap of his work as published in his bestselling book ‘Influence.’

 

6 Universal Principles of Persuasion

In his book, Robert Cialdini uncovered 6 Universal Principles of Persuasion. Shortcuts that our brain uses to make decisions, or in Cialdini’s words shortcuts that make people ‘say yes.’ What makes the work of Prof. Cialdini so interesting is that he shows influence at work. He translates scientific research in the area of behavioural design and human psychology into practical business applications. His widely acclaimed studies are highly instructive to those who want to be more influential.

The six universal principles of persuasion (POP), also called the principles of influence are:

  • Reciprocity
  • Scarcity
  • Authority
  • Consistency
  • Liking
  • Consensus or Social Proof

In this post, you’ll find a series of videos in which Robert Cialdini explains the persuasion principles himself on various business conferences. It’s, therefore, a showcase how broadly his thinking can be used in practice.

Persuasion Principle 1: Reciprocity

“People say yes to those who have given to them first.” In this short 3.16 minute video, Cialdini tells about the social norm that exists across cultures that explains why the reciprocity principle helps to influence people’s behaviour. Who would think that remembering someone’s birthday could be so important if you want people to remember yours? You’ll know after watching this video.

 

To summarize: give what you want to receive. If a colleague needs help, and you can ‘lend’ him one of your team members, you’ll get his help later.

 

Persuasion Principle 2: Scarcity

People want to have what is scarce. How can you use this in daily business? There have been several examples of the scarcity principle working simply by saying something will be limited. There’s been an example that when British Airways announced that they would no longer fly to London – New York twice a week with the Concorde as too little passengers were using the service, sales took off the next day. Nothing changed about the Concorde, it became scarce and therefore wanted.

You can also use the scarcity principle by using exclusive information to persuade. Influence and rivet key players’ attention by saying for example ‘just got this information today.’

 

Persuasion Principle 3: Authority

“People are very willing to follow the lead of an authority. Suppose you are that authority? The implication is that you need to your background, experience, and credentials in the minds of the people you want to influence before you begin the process of influence”. This is how Cialdini starts his explanation of the principle of persuasion called ‘authority’. To sum it up, the principle shows that if an expert says it, it must be true. You can watch the 3.20-minute video here:

 

Don’t assume your expertise is self-evident. Instead, establish your expertise before doing business with new team members or clients. In conversations before a meeting, describe how you solved a problem similar to the one on the agenda.

Persuasion Principle 4: Consistency

If you want to get the loyalty of people that don’t quite trust you yet, the best way is to make them commit to something. Use the foot in the door technique where a small request paves the way for compliance with larger subsequent requests. To fully use the long-lasting power of commitment and consistency:

  1. Make people commit to something small first, making it easier to follow-up with larger requests;
  2. Try to showcase their choices to the public, so that they’re now accountable to everyone else;
  3. Get them to put in as much effort as possible, so that they’ll perceive the results as more worthwhile.

Persuasion Principle 5: Liking

“The number one rule of sales is to get your customer to like you. That’s true, but I am going to give it the status of the number two rule of sales. Here’s the number one rule in my view. It is not to get your customer to like you; it’s come to like your customer”. This is how Cialdini starts his keynote speech on the Australasian Real Estate Conference. Watch this 4.46-minute video, and you’ll know exactly what Cialdini sees as the psychology of persuasion when talking about the persuasion principle ‘liking’ and how you can use it to boost sales.

How do you get to like your customer, client, patient or user? By using the same tools, you can use for them to like you. You try to discover similarities. If you find something about someone you truly admire, you are going to like that person more. It’s all about having empathy. The key skill every behavioural designer should have. But it has to be genuine. It has to be true. This is how you can make sure you’ll find a genuine reason to like your ‘public.’ Cialdini explains this in this 5.02-minute video.

In short: to influence people, win friends through similarity. Create any bonds with peers, bosses and direct reports by informally discovering interests. And praise: charm and disarm, make positive remarks about others.

 

Persuasion Principle 6: Consensus/Social Proof

People follow what those around them are doing. In this video, Cialdini explains the principle of social proof. He uses the case about reusing towels in hotels. What’s very interesting is that he makes a clear distinction between cooperation and social proof. Want to know why cooperation didn’t work, and social proof did? What’s this 6.01-minute video taken on a pharmaceutical conference in Las Vegas.

 

And to add on to this, a very short video (0.55 minutes) in which Cialdini explains the door hanger experiment, that showed how social proof could help people save energy.

How can you use social proof in another way? Use peer power. For example, ask an esteemed ‘old timer’ in your company to support your new initiative or plan.

 

Would you like to learn more?

Be sure to also check out our posts on the work of Kahneman and BJ Fogg. Two of the other significant scientists from the field of human-centered thinking and behavioural psychology. Or do you want to master the science of influence yourself? Check our two-day Behavioural Design Academy:

 

Cialdini on persuasion

By | Behavioural Science

Excerpt: In this post, we will introduce you to the work of Dr. Robert Cialdini, who is an expert on how to influence people and the psychology of persuasion. In his bestselling book, ‘Influence‘ Cialdini identifies six principles of persuasion and explains the psychology of why people say “yes”—and how to apply these understandings in real life.

This isn’t so much an article, but a reference post for anyone who wants a quick overview of Cialdini’s work on the persuasion principles or wants to reread one of them. That’s why we’ve have divided this post into sections, so you can easily jump to the subject of your interest.

6 Universal Principles of Influence
Reciprocity
Scarcity
Authority
Consistency
Liking
Consensus or Social Proof
How to use the Principles of Influence

6 Universal Principles of Influence

Robert Cialdini’s work can be considered as adding on to the work of Daniel Kahneman. Kahneman discovered what laid the foundation in all thinking about behavioural psychology and behavioural economics. Where we use to think we all rational thinking human-beings using information at hand to make a decision, for the most part, we rely on emotional thinking. The majority of our choices are automatic and based on so-called shortcuts.

In his book Robert Cialdini uncovered six shortcuts that he calls ‘universals that guide human behaviour,’ they are:

  • Reciprocity
  • Scarcity
  • Authority
  • Consistency
  • Liking
  • Consensus or Social Proof

When using these shortcuts, Robert Cialdini states you can make people say ‘yes’ to about anything. Also called persuasion: the action or process of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe something. That’s also the reason why he stresses to employ the persuasion principles an ethical manner.

Which is something we can only stress once more. Behavioural science is a powerful tool. If you know how people think, and how they make decisions, you can influence their behaviour. Our company mission is to unlock the power of behavioural psychology to nudge people into making more positive choices in work, life, and play. We help people grow through change. And true change is all about behaviour. You have to stop doing the things that hold you back, and you have to start doing the things that will propel you forward.

Why we love the work of Cialdini is that he brought the psychology of influence into practice, like ethical sales, marketing, management, and business applications. He explains the psychology of why people say ‘yes—and how to apply these understandings in daily life. Cialdini ‘s 6 Universal Principles of Influence were based on three “undercover” years applying for and training at used car dealerships, fund-raising organizations, and telemarketing firms to observe real-life situations of persuasion.

Reciprocity

The reciprocation rule essentially states that if someone gives something to us, we feel obligated to repay that debt. Could be we give back to others in the form of behaviour, a gift, or service. Key to using the Principle of Reciprocity is to be the first to give and to ensure that what you give is personalized and unexpected.

In his book, Cialdini illustrates this principle with an example you have probably have experienced yourself: the fact you get candy or peppermint with your restaurant bill. They have done a series of experiments in restaurants with to see if this phenomenon of giving a little gift together with the bill had any effect in influencing the amount of tip given (obligation to do something back). This is what happened.

When a single mint was given with the bill and the end of a meal, tipping amounts generally rose with 3%. Interestingly, if the gift is doubled and two mints are giving, tips don’t double, but they quadruple to a 14% increase in tips. What turned out to be the most effective in influencing people using reciprocity? If the waiter gives one mint, starts to walk away from the table, but pauses, he turns back and says, “For you nice people, here’s an extra mint,” tips go through the roof. A 23% increase, influenced not by what was given, but how it was given. It feels personalized, and it’s unexpected.

You can imagine that using the principle of reciprocity can also improve sales effectiveness. Most of the times we’re not aware how the principles of influence work, but they drive how we make choices, and it once again shows the power of the subconscious mind Kahneman has illustrated so beautifully.

 

cialdini reciprocity

Scarcity

People want more of those things they can have less of. That’s why you see so many websites using cues that stress the scarcity of a product or service. Deal times that are running out, the number of rooms left, only two days to go, etc. Time pressure enhances the feeling of scarcity. And it even increases the perceived value of things.

When it comes to effectively persuading others using the scarcity principle, it’s not enough to tell people about the benefits they’ll gain if they choose your product or service. You’ll also need to be very clear about what is unique about your proposal and what they stand to lose if they don’t buy your product or service.

cialdini scarcity

Authority

This is the idea that people follow the lead of credible, knowledgeable experts. What Cialdini tells us is that it’s important to signal to others what makes you a credible, knowledgeable authority before you make your influence attempt. That can be done in different ways. Diplomas on your wall help, wearing a uniform also does the trick and being introduced to someone as an expert does work too.

In his book, Cialdini discusses and example of authority on his website this that is very interesting (the example is directly taken from his website). A group of real estate agents was able to increase both the number of property appraisals and the number of contracts by making sure the reception staff who answered customer phone calls to first mention their colleagues’ credentials and expertise.

So, people interested in letting a property were told “Lettings? Let me connect you with Sandra, who has over 15 years’ experience letting properties in this area.” Customers who wanted more information about selling properties were told “Speak to Peter, our head of sales. He has over 20 years’ experience selling properties. I’ll put you through now.” This is designing a customer experience that is actually behaviour driven design that can boost your sales.

cialdini authority

Consistency

People like to be consistent with the things they have previously said or done. If you did A, you are inclined to do A (and not B). This has to do with the fact that our brain is always looking to reduce our mental stress. And it’s less stressful for our brain to be consistent. Daniel Kahneman has explained in-depth how this works in our brain if you want to know more about this check out this post.

How can you use this in influence people? If you can get someone to do, preferably a public or written, commitment to something your chances of influencing that person raise dramatically. Easier said if you can make someone say ‘yes’ to something it works wonders. An example. People who are conducting street interviews. If they would stop someone on the street, and first ask them ‘Do you consider yourself to be a helpful person?”. And if people say ‘yes,’ they then asked them, would you mind filling in this questionnaire for me? Compliance rates rose from 27% to 70%. People wanted to be consistent with their first answer. In other words, you can change attitudes towards something by using this principle of consistency.

Cialdini gives another example of commitment in his book. In a study, they found out that the number of missed appointments at health centers was reduced by 18% simply by asking the patients themselves to write down appointment details on the appointment card (instead of the doctor assistants who would normally do this).

 

cialdini consistency

Liking

People are more inclined to say ‘yes’ to people they like. But how can you increase motivation for people like you? How can you influence people’s thoughts and behaviour towards yourself? The science of persuasion gives three very clear answers to this. People tend to like you more if:

  1. You are similar to them
  2. You pay them compliments
  3. You cooperate with them towards a mutual goals

In short, you can behavioural design the perception of yourself by using the principle of liking.

 

cialdini liking

Consensus or Social Proof

Social proof is a psychological and social phenomenon where people assume the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behaviour in a given situation. Social proof is considered prominent in ambiguous social situations where people are unable to determine the appropriate mode of behaviour and is driven by the assumption that the surrounding people possess more knowledge about the current situation (Wikipedia).

Or as Dr. Cialdini puts it “Especially when people are uncertain, people will look to the actions and behaviours of others to determine their own”. Telling people the number of people that have already bought your product, or the number of people that were happy with your service works. But you can also design behaviour by referring to others who were in a similar situation as the person you are trying to influence. A well-known example is the research on towel re-usage in hotel rooms. By doing one small addition on the little information card that can be found in the hotel rooms stating that ‘75% of people staying in this room, reused their towels’ the towel re-usage rate increased with 33%.

 

cialdini social proof

 

To round things off, this is a short video explaining the six principles in a fun and easy to understand way made by Influence at Work and narrated by Dr. Robert Cialdini:

 

How to use the Principles of Influence

We’ve made an overview of the six universal principles of influence and joined them with the way you could apply them. Hopefully giving you a bird’s eye view on how to use the principles to influence people. We use the principles in combination with BJ Fogg’s Behavior model to boost motivation and ability.

cialdini influence

We have also made an overview of the more practical usage of the principles in daily life and business.

Would you like to learn more?